Optimum angle for solar panels is needed for optimal utilization of photovoltaic panels and is obtained when the panel is mounted on the bracket with variable azimuth and elevation angle. Because these controllers and carriers are too expensive commonly is accepted mounting on a fixed brackets with panel azimuth shifted to the south. Elevation of the solar panels should be set guided by the criterion of the least favorable conditions, the lowest intensity of solar radiation (December and January).
Angle of the solar panels from the horizontal plane for these months can be read from the diagram:
Formula for calculation best angle for solar panels, based on the latitude is:
For example If panel position is 35º north latitude than optimum tilt angle will be:
Exact latitude value for specific place can be found on following address:
It is important to note that the angle calculated by the formula or diagram is not optimal in terms of efficiency of the panel during the year. Our initial goal is to provide a reliable power supply throughout the year. Because of that we are focused on the worst month by intensity of solar radiation and we set up panel to sight elevation angle in order to get the most unfavorable month maximum power from the panel. Elevation angle for maximum power production during the year is different.
When photovoltaic modules are installed on supporting structure at an angle like od the next picture, it is important to calculate minimum distance between modules to avoid shadow from one module on another module.
x- modules length
α-solar radiation angle